Lecture 6 Determiners (1)
Check up the exercises on P85, textbook.
Words that precede any premodifying adjectives in a noun phrase and which denote such referential meaning as specific reference, genitive reference, definite quantity or indefinite quantity are referred to as DETERMINERS.
Articles; possessive determiners; genitive nouns; demonstrative determiners; relative determiners; interrogative determiners; indefinite determiners; cardinal and ordinal numerals; fractional and multiplicative numerals and other quantifiers.
1) Determiners with all three clauses on nouns (Singular count nouns; plural count nouns and noncount nouns)
the; some; any; no; other; whose; my; your; etc.
2) Determiners with singular count nouns only
a(n); one; another; each; every; either; neither; many a; such a.
3) Determiners with plural count nouns only
both; two, three etc.; another two/three, many; (a) few; several; these; those; a great number of
4) Determiners with nouncount nouns only
a (little) bit of; a great amount of; a great deal of; (a) little; much; less; least
5) Determiners with singular and plural count nouns only
the first; the second; the last; the next
6) Determiners with singular and noncount nouns only: ----this; that
7) Determiners with plural and noncount nouns only
a lot of; lots of; plenty of; enough; most; such; other;
less; least; (in informal style, they may occasionally occur with plural nouns.)
IV. Collocations between determiners (P95)
1) Central determiners, predeterminers and postdeterminers
According to their potential position, determiners fall into three subclasses:
A. Central determiners;
B. Predeterminers; and
2) Word order of three subclasses of determiners
Normal order: “predeterminer + central determiner + postdeterminer(s)
A. There can’t be coordinate predeterminers or central determiners
(F) my that book
(T) that book of mine
B. There is no restraint in the postdeterminers
two more sheets
many more copies
C. overlapping: ----such
a. predeterminer: such a/an
b. postdeterminer: collocating with some; any; no; all; few; another; other; many; one; two; etc.
1) Many; much; a lot of; lots of; plenty of ----“多”
A． Many & much--- functioning both as determiners and as indefinite pronouns. E.g. A rocket has many parts.
-- Have you done all these exercises?
-- No, I haven’t done very many.
B. Many/much--- often taking such modifiers as “how/too/so/as…as” etc.
C. In informal style, many/much are normally used in negative and interrogative sentence, while a lot of, lots of; plenty of are commonly used in affirmative sentences.
D. Just as many/much sometimes carry a non-assertive tone, they are commonly used in the objective clause introduced by whether/if.
2) (a) few; (a) little P104
3) some; any
A. some--- assertive word (in affirmative sentence)
any---nonassertive word (in negative, interrogative, conditional sentences or sentences with negative implication.)
B. When some occurs in questions, it is implied that speaker expected an affirmative answer.
C. Some = a certain (+ singular count noun)
Any = every /no matter which ( + singular count noun)
4) All; both; every; each; either; neither; any
All the items in this group can function both as determiners and an indefinite pronouns with the exception of every which is a determiner only.
A. “ 全体” All--- refers to the whole of three or more than three
à noun (negative both for personal or impersonal reference.
no one for personal reference only
Both ---refers to the whole of only two
à neither (negative)
B. “ 每个” Every ≥ 3 persons/things (a whole group)
Each ≥ 2 persons/things (one at a time)
e.g. We want every child (= all the children) to succeed.
Each child will find his own way to success.
C. “ 任何一个” any ≥ 3 persons/things
either = 2 persons/things only
on either side = on both sides
at either end = at both ends