Lecture 6 Determiners (1)

I.       Revision

Check up the exercises on P85, textbook.

II.Presentation

1)           Definition

Words that precede any premodifying adjectives in a noun phrase and which denote such referential meaning as specific reference, genitive reference, definite quantity or indefinite quantity are referred to as DETERMINERS.

2)           Classification

Articles; possessive determiners; genitive nouns; demonstrative determiners; relative determiners; interrogative determiners; indefinite determiners; cardinal and ordinal numerals; fractional and multiplicative numerals and other quantifiers.

III.      Collocations between determiners and nouns

1)           Determiners with all three clauses on nouns (Singular count nouns; plural count nouns and noncount nouns)

the; some; any; no; other; whose; my; your; etc.

2)           Determiners with singular count nouns only

a(n); one; another; each; every; either; neither; many a; such a.

3)           Determiners with plural count nouns only

both; two, three etc.; another two/three, many; (a) few; several; these; those; a great number of

4)           Determiners with nouncount nouns only

a (little) bit of; a great amount of; a great deal of; (a) little; much; less; least

5)           Determiners with singular and plural count nouns only

the first; the second; the last; the next

6)           Determiners with singular and noncount nouns only: ----this; that

7)           Determiners with plural and noncount nouns only

a lot of; lots of; plenty of; enough; most; such; other;

less; least; (in informal style, they may occasionally occur with plural nouns.)

IV. Collocations between determiners (P95)

1)           Central determiners, predeterminers and postdeterminers

According to their potential position, determiners fall into three subclasses:

A.         Central determiners;

B.          Predeterminers; and

C.         Postdeterminers

2)           Word order of three subclasses of determiners

Normal order: “predeterminer + central determiner + postdeterminer(s)

A.         There can’t be coordinate predeterminers or central determiners

(F) my that book

(T) that book of mine

B.          There is no restraint in the postdeterminers

two more sheets

many more copies

C.         overlapping: ----such

a.             predeterminer: such a/an

b.            postdeterminer: collocating with some; any; no; all; few; another; other; many; one; two; etc.

IV.       A comparative study of some determiner usage

1)           Many; much; a lot of; lots of; plenty of ----“多”

A.                         Many & much--- functioning both as determiners and as indefinite pronouns. E.g.   A rocket has many parts.

-- Have you done all these exercises?

-- No, I haven’t done very many.

B.          Many/much--- often taking such modifiers as “how/too/so/as…as” etc.

C.         In informal style, many/much are normally used in negative and interrogative sentence, while a lot of, lots of; plenty of are commonly used in affirmative sentences.

D.         Just as many/much sometimes carry a non-assertive tone, they are commonly used in the objective clause introduced by whether/if.

2)  (a) few; (a) little P104 

3)         some; any

A.         some--- assertive word (in affirmative sentence)

any---nonassertive word (in negative, interrogative, conditional sentences or sentences with negative implication.)

B.           When some occurs in questions, it is implied that speaker expected an affirmative answer.

C.          Some = a certain (+ singular count noun)

           Any = every /no matter which ( + singular count noun)

4)           All; both; every; each; either; neither; any

All the items in this group can function both as determiners and an indefinite pronouns with the exception of every which is a determiner only.

A.         全体” All--- refers to the whole of three or more than three

                 ­à noun (negative both for personal or impersonal reference.

                   no one for personal reference only

          Both ---refers to the whole of only two

                 à neither (negative)

B.          每个” Every 3 persons/things (a whole group)

                  Each 2 persons/things (one at a time)

e.g. We want every child (= all the children) to succeed.

    Each child will find his own way to success.

C. 任何一个”  any 3 persons/things

                    either = 2 persons/things only

                 on either side = on both sides

                 at either end = at both ends

 

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